JDBC means Java database connectivity
JDBC is the abbreviation for Java database connectivity and refers to a set of interfaces to use relational database systems from Java. Java applications access SQL databases through a JDBC driver through which the Java source code can be kept largely database independent, so that the SQL database can be easily changed later. JDBC provides developers with methods to build connections to databases, read records or write new ones. In addition, tables can be updated and procedures can be run on the server side. The first JDBC specification came out in 1996. The JDBC-API and its drivers reached an effective abstraction of relational databases, so that the functions of different databases could be used in the same way through the uniform programming interface. The big advantage of JDBC is that you do not need to learn different access methods for different databases. Every database has its own protocol and possibly network protocol, but the implementation is only known to the database driver.
The JDBC model is based on the X/OPEN SQL Call Level Interface (CLI) and provides the same interface as Microsoft’s ODBC.
JDBC is a set of interfaces to use Java databases
To converse with a database you will need a driver which implements JDBC-API and mediates between the Java program and the database. Every driver is usually implemented differently because it will need to transfer the database independent JDBC-API to the specific database. Since there was no driver at the start of JDBC development, JavaSoft and Intersolv (now Merant since 2000) considered building a JDBC-ODBC bridge that will convert JDBC calls into ODBC calls on the client side. Since the performance is often not optimal and the bridge is not available on every platform, this JDBC connection represents a stopgap. And because ODBC is a system-based solution, the type 1 driver has native methods which makes porting and usage – through the network – more difficult. The JDBC-ODBC bridge has implemented the JDBC 2 standard since version 1.4.
You can find more information on JDBC on Wikipedia: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_Database_Connectivity
And on the manufacturer’s website: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/jdbc/index.html